Author Topic: Back to the Peninsular Wars, events in Portugal and beyond  (Read 146546 times)

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Offline Lt. Campers

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To set the scene, just click and minimise the following musical link
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Just when expats were thinking of taking a holiday to Spain or Portugal; the peace
and tranquillity of the region is about to be disturbed by a conflict which has engulfed
much of central and eastern europe as Napoleon's victorious armies sweep all before
them at the Battles of Austerlitz, Jena and Friedland.
Regulars of my Back to the Napoleonic Wars column have already been keeping
themselves abreast of developments as they occur in Europe.

Napoleon leading his troops at the Battle of Austerlitz:






The Austerlitz campaign, December 1805

For those soldiers and campfollowers involved in the Battle of Austerlitz over in the
Czech Republic, it was much more than a battle - it was a full campaign.
Strung out over 5 days, this video tells the story leading up to the battle,
as Napoleon's french outposts, quartered in villages, east of Brno.
Come under attack from several brigades of the Austro-Russian army. Harried by the
Czars cossacks, the french retreat in good order until their final fatal encounter on the
battlefield of Austerlitz, east of Brno.

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The battle of Austerlitz as broadcast on Czech TV:

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BBC News report of the Battle of Austerlitz, including video report
on Napoleon's greatest victory:


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BBC news report on Napoleon's vctory over the Prussian's at Jena:

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Russian TV report on Napoleons victory at Jena in Germany:

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Interesting account of the Jena Campaign of 1806


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German TV film of Napoleon Boneparte's entry to Berlin and
his speech after receiving the keys to the city:


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National Flag of the Kingdom of Portugal 1707 - 1816




Heres a humourous account of the events leading up to the evacuation
of the Portuguese royal family from Lisbon in November 1807


Don John VI goes to Brazil part 1

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Don John VI goes to Brazil part 2

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Now with much of Europe under Napoleons control - his attentions are drawn to Portugal,
who have so far defied all requests to break off trade with Britain.
As Sweden has already known to her cost ( this year ) she has already lost Finland to
Napoleon's reluctant ally Russia ( following the Treaty of Tilsit ) for defying Bonapartes
blockade.

French troops marching into Spain 1807:

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Therefore a French army is sent under the command of General Junot which crosses
into Portugal from Spain and occupies the country with little resistance. The royal family
only just managing to escape to Brazil, a couple of days before Lisbon falls to the French.

British landings in Portugal & the Vimeiro campaign of 1808:

French soldiers under the command of General Junot have been siezing key cities and
garrisons for the emperor and the Portuguese government, outraged by events, have called
upon their old ally Britain to come to her aid. Consequently a British force under the command
of Sir Arthur Wellesley has been landing troops this week at Mondego bay ( Figueira da Foz )
120 miles north of Lisbon.
Having secured the beachead Wellesley hopes to link up with his Portuguese allies before advancing
on Lisbon ( still held by the French ) 

To mark the occasion of the start of the Pennisular Wars in Portugal. The BBC is running a
very interesting radio documentary on Radio 4 all week called, At War with Wellington
where BBC presenters, Peter and Dan Snow follow in the footsteps of Sir Arthur Wellesley
( Lord Wellington ) and the British army during the Peninsular War - starting with the landings
in Mondego Bay.

At War with Wellington:
 
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The full Radio 4 series - listen again to At War with Wellington:
 
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In the months leading upto the british landings in Portugal, the royal navy has been busy
engaging French and Spanish troops ( still loyal to France ) garrisoning many islands
and forts off the spanish coast.

Here we see a royal navy ship attacking the fort on Tenerife:



Many spainiards hearing the arrival of British ships in the bay recorded
the early morning bombardment of the fort followed by an overnight
street battle.

Royal navy frigate bombarding the Spanish fort:

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Overnight street battle between royal navy sailors, supported by marines
against spanish troops:


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Battle of Tenerife as shown Spanish television:

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These attacks and the activities of other royal navy ships along the
Portuguese coast have kept the French guessing where the British
will land land next in Portugal.



The Portuguese student insurrection

The origins of the Portuguese insurrection against Junot's occupation of Portugal, lies with
the students and teachers of Coimbra University. Who fermented by the popular feelings of
outrage against french rule decided to take matters into their own hands by siezing the towns
armoury before evicting the french garrison from Coimbra.
Following this success, the students formed a University battalion and marched to the coast
at Figueira da Foz, taking the fort of Santa Catarina almost completely by surprise before
freeing Mondego bay from the french patrols.
This rebellion proved opportune for the British who were seeking a safe anchorage, from
where they can land Wellesley's army.

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British landings in Mondego Bay:

Monday was a big day as hundreds of troops were brought ashore, despite the atlantic surf
common along this area of coastline. Although Portuguese students had siezed the old fort prior
to their arrival, reports that a French force was in the area, required the British to form up
ready to engage the enemy on landing.


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Soldiers shortening sail before landing:



British troops boarding boats



Royal navy rowing troops ashore:



British troops about to disembark:



Soldiers gathering their equipment on shore:



Soldiers loading muskets on the beach:



With Napoleon's troops nearby, Wellesley's taking no chances by forming up his troops
ready to engage the french:




British troops firing at a french patrol trying to stop the landings:




The forthcoming battles of Rolica and Vimiero:

The landings in Mondego have prompted Genral Junot, based at his headquarters in
Lisbon. To send a small force under General Delaborde to block and delay the british
advance at the village of Rolica. So the main french army can intercept Wellesley and
drive the british back to their ships, before ever reaching Lisbon.
Anyway having set the scene, the dye is cast  :o and the Vimiero campaign is
already in full swing.  8)  8)



Veterans of the Napoleonic wars column will be surprised to find the battles of Rolica and
Vimeiro will be refought same day ( namely saturday 16th August ) with the
Battle of Rolica at 09:30am in the morning before retiring at 12 for a long afternoon
Siesta  :D  :D  :D  and then re-appearing at 6pm to refight the battle of Vimeiro.

P-N will be delighted to know that Campers will be on location ( hopefully ) to film
and report on events for Expatua along with a couple of fellow Portuguese expats.  ;)  ;)  ;)

« Last Edit: 00:34 07-Jun-2014 by Lt. Campers »


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Offline P-N

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Lt Campers, Sir, you are a bloody good man!!!!!!  :)
"When surrounded by the dark void of the willfully blind, it does not excuse those that are a spark of light their duty to shine" - Me

Offline P-N

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I can't imagine there will be too much discent over "Over the hills and far away" - but finding enough Expats who know ALL the words to "Rule Britania" and not just the chorus will take some doing Lt Campers Sir!  ;) :D :D
"When surrounded by the dark void of the willfully blind, it does not excuse those that are a spark of light their duty to shine" - Me

Offline Lt. Campers

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The Vemeiro campaign in Portugal 1808
« Reply #3 on: 01:49 21-Aug-2008 »
Lt Campers
Cafe Napoleon,
Bombarral, Portugal

Expats looking for a last minute update to tomorrows Battle of
Rolica will not be disappointed - as you know the british advance
towards Lisbon has been progressing steadily forward and
tonight Wellesley´s advance guard has reached the town of
Bombarral.
Where in the area of Azambujeiro dos Carros, the Rifles have
exchanged fire with General Delaborde troops blocking the road
to Lisbon.
Therefore having set our picquet lines, the men are making camp
in Bombarral. While the officers seek out cafes and bars, as you
know its a bank holiday in Portugal and so the officers find
refreshment at the Napoleon Cafe in Bombarral ( much to the
amusement of the locals )



News of the British landings have been reported in papers and news items
in Portugal and tomorrow we are honoured to have the presence of
some very distinguished guests.



As I check out the Bombarrel newspaper its seems like many
high ranking officers and government officials will be attending
the battles, no doubt ( as General Wellesley would say ) to see
the French get "a dam good thrashing"

Obviously the Battles of Rolica and Vimeiro are one of the deciding
battles in Portuguese history - but I think we all know another
reason for the impressive turnout - Sharpe.
Apparently ever since the Sharpe film series was translated into
Portuguese, hes been a hit with the ladies.
Certainly many high ranking government wives, daughters, etc are
hoping to be introduced to Seargent Sharpe ( his rank at Rolica &
Vimeiro ) after the battle.

Anyway for all of you gettng up early on saturday to arrive at the
battlesite by 08:30 am in the morning. Yes it is early but you must
be their by 9am.
As I know I have many viisitors to this website - so you might be
interested if your living in Portugal.
As you travel up the A8 from Lisbon ( just behind the police
motorbike riders, escorting the Presidents and the Prime
ministers cars ) to Bombarral.
You will be struck by the lack ( I would say none existant ) road
signs to the event. Of course now we know the reasons why  
matter of national security, for your eyes only, etc, etc.

Therefore please take note of the following road directions. From
Bombarral, go round the outskirts of the town, past the Napoleon cafe.
Take the road to Rolica but your destination is Azambujera
dos Carros. The battle will be refought north of this village. Slow down
in the village and look out for a sign say Monument to Corronel Lake,
take this road to the monument. Park your car by the monument
where you will need to walk 2 kilometers to where the
battle re-enactment will take place at 09:30 am.

The Battle of Vemeiro will be refought at Vimeiro. Again drive to the
village of Vimeiro and be their for 17:30 as the battle re-enactment
is around 6pm.
Naturally expats are welcome to sing "Over the hills and far away"
and "Rule Britainnia" but beware the President and Prime Minister
might be listening.
  

Those expats curious about the fortunes of the Wellesley's army marching through Portugal over
the weekend, will be pleased with the conduct of British troops throughout the Vimeiro
campaign.

Of course you had to get up early to see the redcoats in action on saturday, as the British
( along with our Portugueuse allies ) wasted no time in pushing back the french under
a steady hail of musketry fire.

British troops marching through Portugal:







The French had already been along this road earlier, in order to setup
a prepared postion on the road from Rolica:

French troops on the Lisbon road:





Napoleon's troops have had more than the British & Portuguese army to
contend with since their invasion of Portugal - as the country is rife
with armed Partisans:




Following the British we have the Portuguese contingent at Rolica:



« Last Edit: 03:35 18-Dec-2009 by Lt. Campers »
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Offline Lt. Campers

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Battle of Rolica, August
« Reply #4 on: 01:53 21-Aug-2008 »
The Battle of Rolica, August 1808
In August 1808 british troops under General Wellesley have been marching
steadily towards Lisbon to oust the French army led by General Junot.
With a force of 14.000 troops plus 1700 Portuguese. Wellesley was
opposed by 4000 French troops under the command of General Henri
Francouis, Comte Delaborde with orders to harass and hold up the british
advance long enough for Junot to deploy a far superior force out of
Lisbon, in order to drive the british back to the sea.
Although outnumbered almost four to one, Delaborde has chosen the
village of Roliça in order to make a stand. The ground being well chosen
as its in in the centre of a range of steep hills, shaped like a horseshoe,
about one mile wide by two miles deep. All the hills surrounding Rolica
being well wooded with trees.

The French begin the day to the north of Rolica, where backed by high
ground they are able to block and protect the old Lisbon road.
On the hill about a mile to the south of the village where the French
first fall back, their are four gullies, leading to the new French
defensive position.
The nature of the ground prevented Wellesley from making effective use
of his superior numbers to outflank the French, leading the british to make
a few rash frontal assualts against the French.

Portuguese troops & british sailors harassing the french:



The most tragic being the assualt led by Colonel Lake of the 29th regiment of foot.
Who as the french fell back to their final position ( to the south and east of
the village, at the top of a steep hill ) Lake led his men
up a gully, only to find himself behind Delaborde and surrounded by the
french, this mistake cost Lake his life, along with most of his men, as the
rest of the british force mounted a general assualt in order to reach the
outnumbered men.

British troops engaged in a fire fight with the French:









At first General Delaborde withdrew in good order before the british attacks
( with the help of his cavalry ) before discipline broke down and his army ran to the comparative
safety of Montachique near Torres Vedras.

Portuguese TV video of the Battle of Rolica:

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A film clip of the event on video camara:

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British soldiers dine on food & wine left behind by the French following their defeat at Rolica,
near Bombarral.




« Last Edit: 01:56 21-Mar-2010 by Lt. Campers »
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Offline Capt.Ted

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Re: Back to the Peninsular Wars, events in Portugal
« Reply #5 on: 20:55 22-Aug-2008 »
Campers - what can I say another great post with some super pics.  ;)  ;)  ;)
Your sure to keep us riverted for your latest updates on this one.

It just so happens my parents retired to the Algarve in Portugal and like me
are keeping an eye on those Frenchies   :D  :D  :D  :D  :D
As you seem to be a reporter embedded within the Napoleonic armies, perhaps you
can keep us posted on what Boney will be upto next.  8)

Anything's possible in Ukraine, so long as you always say to yourself, when faced by petty officialdom - this is Ukraine !!

Offline Lt. Campers

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Re: Back to the Peninsular Wars, events in Portugal
« Reply #6 on: 22:05 24-Aug-2008 »
The road to Vimiero

News of Delaborde's defeat at Rolica was quickly conveyed to General Junot who has
been marching his army out of Lisbon and towards Torres Vedras in the
hope of bringing Sir Arthur Wellesley to battle before further reinforcements
arrive by sea.

General Junot receives news of Delaborde's defeat:




Map of the 1808 campaign that culminated in the Battle of Vimiero:



Click on the link below to enlarge the campaign map:

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Many french officers on Junot's general staff have been enjoying an
Imperial Ball in Lisbon the day before, knowing they might be fighting
tomorrow:






The roads north of Lisbon are becoming jammed with French troops marching to
meet Wellesley.





Meanwhile the british under Sir Arthur Wellesley have pressed forward quickly
and established camp at the village of Vimiero where hes found suitable
ground in order to meet the French within striking distance of Lisbon.

British camp



With the French marching with all speed to confront the british at Vemeiro,
Wellesley has little time to prepare his position before the French army
appears on the horizon.
Don't forget to see Wellesley's men in action at the Battle of Rolica in a
video of last weeks action on my previous post.
« Last Edit: 03:45 18-Dec-2009 by Lt. Campers »
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Offline Lt. Campers

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Battle of Roliça on Portuguese TV
« Reply #7 on: 12:40 28-Aug-2008 »
With the scene set for the climatic Battle of the Vimiero that will determine the fate of
Portugal and General Wellesley's ambitions during the opening rounds of the
Peninsular Wars.  ;)
The Portuguese television company Oeste tv has recently released a TV
documentary on the 200th anniversary re-enactment of the Battle of Rolica refought
on 16th August.
As you know British troops ( with their Portuguese allies ) were fighting for control of the
vital road south through the village of Rolica, that was held by General Delaborde's
french troops fighting a rear guard action.
Anyway heres the Portuguese film feature on the Battle of Rolica where I'm sure
the Odessa expats will be delighted to see Lt Campers congratulating the British
following their victory at Rolica.
Yes, thats a head shot of me, to the left of the French general, just turning
round after congratulating the British officers.  8)   8)   8)


Battle of Rolica - Portuguese tv report:

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Please note the video report can be a bit slow the first time you look at it.
But can be rerun without interuptions on a good broadband connection.

« Last Edit: 21:40 05-Dec-2009 by Lt. Campers »
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Offline Lt. Campers

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Battle of Roliça photogallery
« Reply #8 on: 21:24 28-Aug-2008 »
Heres a spendid photogallery to follow up on the Portuguese television report
on the Battle of Rolica that was refought this month.

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« Last Edit: 21:41 05-Dec-2009 by Lt. Campers »
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Offline Lt. Campers

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Penninsular Wars - Battle of Vimiero 1808
« Reply #9 on: 03:36 31-Aug-2008 »
The Battle of Vimiero - August 1808

Three days after the battle of Rolica, Gen Wellesley established a defensive position
near the village of Vimiero. By holding the village plus some ridges to the west, he  hoped to
cover a british beachhead at Maceira Bay a little further to the west.
Since most of his reinforcements had arrived by August 20, Wellesley planned to continue
his advance on Lisbon but was soon confronted by Junots french army deploying on the
slopes facing Vimiero.
              Wellesley therefore quickly deployed his 20,000 troops to face Junots, army of
Portugal numbering 14,000 men.  What the French commander lacked in numbers he made up
for in cavalry as Wellesley had only 500 cavalry available for the battle.

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General Junot salutes his troops before committing them to battle:



French forming up for battle:



French artillery preparing for battle:



British infantry deploying before Vimiero:





British highland troops at Vimiero:




Junot organized his 14,000-man force into two infantry divisions and the cavalry division of
Pierre Margaron. The infantry division of Henri Delaborde contained the brigades of Antoine
Brenier and Jean Thomiares, while Louis Henri Loison's division included the brigades of
Jean Solignac and Hugues Charlot. In addition, Francoius Kellermann commanded a 2,100-man
reserve made up of four converged grenadier battalions.

French infantry columns moving forward to attack the British:





British & Portuguese troops awaiting the french attack:



British officer addressing men of the 95th Rifles:




General Junot makes only a cursory inspection of the British position before ordering his
forces to attack. The main effort would be against the British left center, along the
western ridgeline. In an attempt to turn the British left flank, he sent Brenier on a long march.
Wellesley realized the danger and sent Acland's, Nightingall's, Bowe's, Ferguson's Brigades to
protect his left. Junot saw the movement of these troops and thinking that Brenier would
be destroyed, sent Solignac's Brigade to support him. This divided his army in two, with over
three kilometers between the two wings.

British line firing into French columns attacking Vimiero:





The first French attack was stopped and all seven guns were captured. Junot ordered another
attack, this time using the two battalions of the 2nd Reserve Grenadiers, under the command
of Colonel St. Clair, along with eight guns.
Soon after, a similar fate overtook Charlot's brigade. In a very narrow column, it struck one
battalion of Anstruther's brigade, which had been hidden behind a crest. Before they could
deploy, the French were taken in flank by a second battalion. Unable to effectively reply to
the devastating British volley fire, Charlot's men soon ran away.
Seeing the battle going against him, Junot committed his grenadier reserve to the attack.
he first two battalions attacked the same area as the previous units and were thown back.
Kellermann swung the final two grenadier battalions wide to the right and succeeds in
breaking into Vimeiro.

French cannon firing on british positions:



British officers order their men to fall back, as the French onslaught moves onto the
streets of Vimiero:




French troops celebrate as they surmount the ridge taken from the british, with
Wellesley's troops falling back as best they can:






A final volley from the British before retiring into Vimiero:




Their now follows a bitter running battle through the streets of Vimiero as british troops
fall back towards the village churchyard as they give way under mounting presure from
Kellerman's french battalions.

British troops, joined by partisans defending the road into Vimiero:




French battalion moving forward as they endure volley fire from the
british rearguard:




Kellerman moves more men forward as the british fall back:




Portuguese troops move forward to take on the advancing French:




The british are facing a crisis as mounting pressure from Kellermans battalions look as if
the French are about to take the village and thus Wellesleys central position.




British troops blocking the street leading to the village square:







The British carry out a series of hit and run attacks down the back streets of Vimeiro in order
to blunt the french attack with British riflemen sniping at French
officers and attacking French troops in the rear.

British 95th riflemen takes cover in one of the gardens




British 95th Rifles hurrying down the backstreets:




British 95th rifles defending a side street into Vimiero, fall back under renewed
french pressure








British & Portuguese riflemen firing on french troops down a side street:






Close quarter combat in the streets of Vimeiro:






Now we move to the climax of the Battle of Vimiero - the french assualt
on the churchyard held by the British:
























British rifles standing firm against the french with the redcoats:




General Kellerman calls on the british to surrender but they jeer in defiance as they know
the French are nearly beaten - Kellermans  troops are a spent force out on a limb, as the
rest of the French position deteriorates following a number of unsuccessful attacks:





But, counterattacked by units from Anstruther and Acland, these Frenchmen also fell back.
Colonel Taylor's 20th Light Dragoons pounced on Kellermann's retreating grenadiers and
routed them. Excited by this easy success, the British horsemen charged out of control. They
soon came up against Margaron's French cavalry division and were routed in their turn. Taylor
was killed with the British horsemen losing about one man in four.
Brenier's men having gotten lost in the hills, Solignac attacked the northeast ridge. This brigade
used a more intelligent attack formation, with three battalions abreast. Even so, each battalion
formed a column one company wide and eight companies deep. If the French intended to form
into line once the enemy position was detected, they waited too long. They marched into the
killing zone of Nightingall and Fergusson's brigades before they could deploy. Smashed by
British volleys, Solignac's men fled.
Brenier's brigade, marching to the sound of battle, came on four battalions abreast. At first
they enjoyed success when they surprised and defeated two British battalions. These units
had let down their guard after overpowering Solignac. Victorious, the French pressed on in
column, but soon ran into the 29th Regiment in line and were stopped. The 29th was joined
by the other two units, who had quickly rallied. Together, the volley fire of the three British
battalions soon routed Brenier's men. Though Wellesley urged him to pursue, Burrard declined
to interfere with the subsequent French retreat.
« Last Edit: 03:57 23-Sep-2012 by Lt. Campers »
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Penninsular Wars - Battle of Vimiero 1808
« Reply #10 on: 00:45 18-Sep-2008 »
For those of you wanting to forget about the credit crunch - the collapse of
the Ukrainian government - the fall in share prices and the ongoing tensions
in Georgia. Above is Campers latest update from Portugal.  ;)  ;)   ;)
The first in the field and the last from the Taverna.

Offline Capt.Ted

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Re: Penninsular Wars - Battle of Vimiero 1808
« Reply #11 on: 17:37 18-Sep-2008 »
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For those of you wanting to forget about the credit crunch - the collapse of
the Ukrainian government - the fall in share prices and the ongoing tensions
in Georgia. Above is Campers latest update from Portugal.  ;)  ;)   ;)

Camps - My biggest concern was HBOS, especially when yours trully has savings tied up their.
Still like your recent battle report from Portugal - it looked a close run thing before the Lloyds
takeover was announced. Phew !!!!!!!
Anything's possible in Ukraine, so long as you always say to yourself, when faced by petty officialdom - this is Ukraine !!

Offline Claus

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Re: Back to the Peninsular Wars, events in Portugal
« Reply #12 on: 19:16 18-Sep-2008 »
GREAT posts, Campers!!  ;D
j'y suis, j'y reste!

Offline Lt. Campers

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Peninsular Wars, the Convention of Sintra
« Reply #13 on: 00:12 22-Sep-2008 »
Armistice followed by the controversial - Convention of Sintra


Cintra, Portugal 1808

The battle of Vimiero, cost Junot 1800 men either killed, wounded or
missing. His only solace being that thanks to insufficient british cavalry
and the reluctance of the new senoir officer on the scene, Sir Harry
Burrard to pursue Junot's broken french army. Junot was able to
effect an orderly retreat to Torres Vedras and then Lisbon.

With his army shaken and beaten and his forces virtually cut off from
any possible withdrawl to Spain. Junot sent his second in command,
Francios Kellerman to seek terms and conditions from Wellesley.
To his surprise he found the British had uindergone a change of command
since the battle, as the latest reinforcements brought with it two senior
officers - Sir Harry Burrard and a day later, Sir Hew Dalrymple.
Both officers were cautious old men who had seen little fighting and
and rather than push the French, they were happy to open negotiations
with the french envoy Kellerman.
       Kellerman managed to extract terms far more generous than any
Junot could have hoped for from Wellesley. Instead on the promise that
the french would hand over all towns, garrsons and cities in Portugal,
the french would be allowed to leave the country with all the honours
of war.

French generals checking the terms of surrender as negotiated
between Kellerman and the British:




The Convention of Sintra was signed at the Palace of Queluz in
Queluz-Sintra, Estremadura. Between the forces of Napoleon, commanded
by Junot, the British commanded by Sir Hew Dalrymple.
Whereby the French would be allowed to leave Portugal with all their arms
baggage and equipment.
Like a beseiged 18th century garrison that has been called upon to
surrender the fort, rather than spill more blood against superior forces.
The French would be allowed to leave Portugal, fully armed and with all
colours flying, complete with any cannon, baggage and plunder they
acquired during their occupation of Portugal.

Draft document on the Convention of Sintra

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What made the Convention so unpalletable was the French were to be
transported back to France on British royal navy ships instead of making
their own way back to French lines through hostile country.

Palace of Queluz in Queluz-Sintra, Estremadura.




French officers being rowed to the British admirals ship at anchor in
Lisbon harbour, following the signing of the Convention:





Public reaction in Britain

As the first despatches from Wellesley arrived in Britain, speaking of
a great victory over the French. People rejoiced as church bells
peeled and cannons fired.
Newspapers in Britain carried news of 'Most glorious news from Portugal,
complete defeat of General Junot and proposals for the surrender of his
army'
When news of the Convention arrived, the government was in uproar,
anger and recriminations followed as ministers tried to distance themselves
from the Convention.
All three generals, Wellesley, Burrard and Dalrymple were recalled to
England to face a court of inquiry into their conduct.

Meanwhile back in Portugal, the Royal navy was busy fulfilling its terms of
the agreement by transporting the 25,000 french trops of which 20,900 were still
under arms to French ports. Junot himself returning to La Rochelle, France on 11th
October accompanied by his two mistresses.
By late November and early December Junot's men were back in Spain fighting the
spanish uprising.
Although the British and Portuguese regained Portugal without another shot being fired,
the treaty continued to be highly unpopular in Britain as witnessed by the following
satirical broadsheet.



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« Last Edit: 04:07 23-Sep-2012 by Lt. Campers »
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Re: Back to the Peninsular Wars, events in Portugal
« Reply #14 on: 09:03 22-Sep-2008 »
Nicely written once again Lt Campers
"When surrounded by the dark void of the willfully blind, it does not excuse those that are a spark of light their duty to shine" - Me